The india-Pakistan standoff between India and Pakistan was a military stalemate that led to the deployment of troops on both sides of the border and along the Line of Control (LoC) in the Kashmir region. It was the first major military stalemate between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in 1999. Military rearmament was launched by India in response to an attack on the Indian parliament in 2001 and the attack on the parliamentary elections in Jammu and Kashmir in 2001.  India claimed that the attacks were carried out by two Pakistani terrorist groups, Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad, both of which India said were supported by the Pakistani ISI, which Pakistan denied.    Tensions escalated after international diplomatic mediation in October 2002 led to the withdrawal of Indian and Pakistani troops from the international border. (a) If the international border is not properly demarcated by pillars, an easily identifiable “working border” on the ground should be established between security forces commanders on both sides; The working threshold is set as such: India and Pakistan have implemented several reciprocal confidence-building measures (CBM) to reduce tensions between the two. These include more high-level discussions, easing visa restrictions and resuming cricket matches between the two. The new bus link between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad has also helped bring the two sides closer together. Pakistan and India have also agreed to cooperate on economic fronts. The analysis of the contract network allows scientists not only to determine how regional ordering contracts interact, but also to identify Lodestone`s specific contracts that form the basis of all other contracts in the relationship.
Contractual networks can also help to highlight the strength of a bilateral relationship and the likelihood that relations between two states will result in violent conflict – states with a high level of treaty building are less likely to wage wars against each other. Kargil is the first armed conflict between the two neighbors since they officially conducted nuclear tests. On 20 June 2004, the two countries agreed with a new Indian government to extend the ban on nuclear tests and set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries to avoid misunderstandings that could lead to nuclear war.  During the winter months of 1998/99, the Indian army deployed its posts to very high peaks in the Kargil sector of Kashmir, as they did every year. The Pakistani army entered through the line of control and held the posts. The Indian army discovered this in May 1999, when the snow was deployed. This has led to heavy fighting between Indian and Pakistani forces, known as cargil. Supported by the Indian Air Force, the Indian Army took over many of the positions occupied by Pakistan. Pakistan then withdrew from the remaining part under international pressure and significant sacrifices. India-Pakistan Agreement on Security and Minority Rights (Nehru-Liaquat Agreement) Relations between Pakistan and India have also been restored via platforms such as media and communication.